permutation — Permutations of finitely many positive integers

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permutation provides a Permutation class for representing permutations of finitely many positive integers in Python. Supported operations & properties include inverses, (group theoretic) order, parity, composition/multiplication, cycle decomposition, cycle notation, word representation, Lehmer codes, and, of course, use as a callable on integers.

Installation

permutation is written in pure Python with no dependencies. Just use pip (You have pip, right?) to install:

pip install permutation

Examples

>>> from permutation import Permutation
>>> p = Permutation(2, 1, 4, 5, 3)
>>> p.to_cycles()
[(1, 2), (3, 4, 5)]
>>> print(p)
(1 2)(3 4 5)
>>> print(p.inverse())
(1 2)(3 5 4)
>>> p.degree
5
>>> p.order
6
>>> p.is_even
False
>>> p.lehmer(5)
27
>>> q = Permutation.cycle(1,2,3)
>>> print(p * q)
(2 4 5 3)
>>> print(q * p)
(1 3 4 5)
>>> for p in Permutation.group(3):
...     print(p)
...
1
(1 2)
(2 3)
(1 3 2)
(1 2 3)
(1 3)

API

class permutation.Permutation(*img)[source]

A Permutation object represents a permutation of finitely many positive integers, i.e., a bijective function from some integer range \([1,n]\) to itself.

The arguments to the constructor are the elements of the permutation’s word representation, i.e., the images of the integers 1 through some \(n\) under the permutation. For example, Permutation(5, 4, 3, 6, 1, 2) is the permutation that maps 1 to 5, 2 to 4, 3 to itself, 4 to 6, 5 to 1, and 6 to 2. Permutation() (with no arguments) evaluates to the identity permutation (i.e., the permutation that returns all inputs unchanged).

Permutations are hashable and immutable. They can be compared for equality but not for ordering/sorting.

__bool__()

A Permutation is true iff it is not the identity

__call__(i)[source]

Map an integer through the permutation. Values less than 1 are returned unchanged.

Parameters:i (int) –
Returns:the image of i under the permutation
__eq__(other)[source]

Return self==value.

__hash__()[source]

Return hash(self).

__init__(*img)[source]

Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.

__mul__(other)[source]

Multiplication/composition of permutations. p * q returns a Permutation r such that r(x) == p(q(x)) for all integers x.

Parameters:other (Permutation) –
Return type:Permutation
__ne__(other)[source]

Return self!=value.

__nonzero__()[source]

A Permutation is true iff it is not the identity

__repr__()[source]

Return repr(self).

__str__()[source]

Convert a Permutation to cycle notation. The instance is decomposed into cycles with to_cycles(), each cycle is written as a parenthesized space-separated sequence of integers, and the cycles are concatenated.

str(Permutation()) is "1".

This is the inverse of parse.

>>> str(Permutation(2, 5, 4, 3, 1))
'(1 2 5)(3 4)'
classmethod cycle(*cyc)[source]

Construct a cyclic permutation from a sequence of unique positive integers. If p = Permutation.cycle(*cyc), then p(cyc[0]) == cyc[1], p(cyc[1]) == cyc[2], etc., and p(cyc[-1]) == cyc[0], with p returning all other values unchanged.

Permutation.cycle() (with no arguments) evaluates to the identity permutation.

Parameters:cyc – zero or more unique positive integers
Returns:the permutation represented by the given cycle
Raises:ValueError
  • if cyc contains a value less than 1
  • if cyc contains the same value more than once
degree

The degree of the permutation, i.e., the largest integer that it permutes (does not map to itself), or 0 if there is no such integer (i.e., if the permutation is the identity)

classmethod from_cycles(*cycles)[source]

Construct a Permutation from zero or more cyclic permutations. Each element of cycles is converted to a Permutation with cycle, and the results (which need not be disjoint) are multiplied together. Permutation.from_cycles() (with no arguments) evaluates to the identity permutation.

This is the inverse of to_cycles.

Parameters:cycles – zero or more iterables of unique positive integers
Returns:the Permutation represented by the product of the cycles
Raises:ValueError
  • if any cycle contains a value less than 1
  • if any cycle contains the same value more than once
classmethod from_left_lehmer(x)[source]

Returns the permutation with the given left Lehmer code. This is the inverse of left_lehmer().

Parameters:x (int) – a nonnegative integer
Returns:the Permutation with left Lehmer code x
Raises:ValueError – if x is less than 0
classmethod from_lehmer(x, n)[source]

Calculate the permutation in \(S_n\) with Lehmer code x. This is the permutation at index x (zero-based) in the list of all permutations of degree at most n ordered lexicographically by word representation.

This is the inverse of lehmer.

Parameters:
  • x (int) – a nonnegative integer
  • n (int) – the degree of the symmetric group with respect to which x was calculated
Returns:

the Permutation with Lehmer code x

Raises:

ValueError – if x is less than 0 or greater than or equal to the factorial of n

classmethod group(n)[source]

Generates all permutations in \(S_n\), the symmetric group of degree n, i.e., all permutations with degree less than or equal to n. The permutations are yielded in ascending order of their left Lehmer codes.

Parameters:n (int) – a nonnegative integer
Returns:a generator of all Permutations with degree n or less
Raises:ValueError – if n is less than 0
inverse()[source]

Returns the inverse of the permutation, i.e., the unique permutation that, when multiplied by the invocant on either the left or the right, produces the identity

Return type:Permutation
inversions()[source]

New in version 0.2.0.

Calculate the inversion number of the permutation. This is the number of pairs of numbers which are in the opposite order after applying the permutation. This is also the Kendall tau distance from the identity permutation. This is also the sum of the terms in the Lehmer code when in factorial base.

Returns:the number of inversions in the permutation
Return type:int
is_even

Whether the permutation is even, i.e., can be expressed as the product of an even number of transpositions (cycles of length 2)

is_odd

Whether the permutation is odd, i.e., not even

isdisjoint(other)[source]

Returns True iff the permutation and other are disjoint, i.e., iff they do not permute any of the same integers

Parameters:other (Permutation) – a permutation to compare against
Return type:bool
left_lehmer()[source]

Encode the permutation as a nonnegative integer using a modified form of Lehmer codes that uses the left inversion count instead of the right inversion count. This modified encoding establishes a degree-independent bijection between permutations and nonnegative integers, with from_left_lehmer() converting values in the opposite direction.

Returns:the permutation’s left Lehmer code
Return type:int
lehmer(n)[source]

Calculate the Lehmer code of the permutation with respect to all permutations of degree at most n. This is the (zero-based) index of the permutation in the list of all permutations of degree at most n ordered lexicographically by word representation.

This is the inverse of from_lehmer.

Parameters:n (int) –
Return type:int
Raises:ValueError – if n is less than degree
next_permutation()[source]

Returns the next Permutation in left Lehmer code order

order

The order (a.k.a. period) of the permutation, i.e., the smallest positive integer \(n\) such that multiplying \(n\) copies of the permutation together produces the identity

classmethod parse(s)[source]

Parse a permutation written in cycle notation. This is the inverse of __str__.

Parameters:s (str) – a permutation written in cycle notation
Returns:the permutation represented by s
Return type:Permutation
Raises:ValueError – if s is not valid cycle notation for a permutation
permute(xs)[source]

Reorder the elements of a sequence according to the permutation; each element at index i is moved to index p(i).

Note that p.permute(range(1, n+1)) == p.inverse().to_image(n) for all integers n greater than or equal to degree.

Parameters:xs – a sequence of at least degree elements
Returns:a permuted sequence
Return type:tuple
Raises:ValueError – if len(xs) is less than degree
prev_permutation()[source]

Returns the previous Permutation in left Lehmer code order

Raises:ValueError – if called on the identity Permutation (which has no predecessor)
right_inversion_count(n=None)[source]

New in version 0.2.0.

Calculate the right inversion count or right inversion vector of the permutation through degree n, or through degree if n is unspecified. The result is a list of n elements in which the element at index i corresponds to the number of right inversions for i+1, i.e., the number of values x > i+1 for which p(x) < p(i+1).

Setting n larger than degree causes the resulting list to have trailing zeroes, which become relevant when converting to & from Lehmer codes and factorial base.

Parameters:n (int) – defaults to degree
Return type:list of int
Raises:ValueError – if n is less than degree
sign

The sign (a.k.a. signature) of the permutation: 1 if the permutation is even, -1 if it is odd

to_cycles()[source]

Decompose the permutation into a product of disjoint cycles. to_cycles() returns a list of cycles in which each cycle is a tuple of integers. Each cycle c is a sub-permutation that maps c[0] to c[1], c[1] to c[2], etc., finally mapping c[-1] back around to c[0]. The permutation is then the product of these cycles.

Each cycle is at least two elements in length and places its smallest element first. Cycles are ordered by their first elements in increasing order. No two cycles share an element.

When the permutation is the identity, to_cycles() returns an empty list.

This is the inverse of from_cycles.

Returns:the cycle decomposition of the permutation
to_image(n=None)[source]

Returns a tuple of the results of applying the permutation to the integers 1 through n, or through degree if n is unspecified. If v = p.to_image(), then v[0] == p(1), v[1] == p(2), etc.

When the permutation is the identity, to_image called without an argument returns an empty tuple.

This is the inverse of the constructor.

Parameters:n (int) – the length of the image to return; defaults to degree
Returns:the image of 1 through n under the permutation
Return type:tuple of ints
Raises:ValueError – if n is less than degree

Indices and tables